Nanoparticles as seen by a transmission electron microscopeZinc nanoparticles as seen by a transmission electron microscopeDouble-walled carbon nanotubes, or DWNT, under a transmission electron microscopeAligned carbon nanotube powder with 200 nanometer size referenceSingle-wall carbon nanotubes, or SWNT, under a transmission electron microscopeMulti-walled carbon nanotubes, MWNT, under a transmission electron microscopeSingle-walled carbon nanotubes, SWNT, under a transmission electron microscope
PhosphorDotsTM: Our phosphor-based lanthanide nanomaterials can be used in a variety of quantum dot-type applications, and are particularly suitable for medical and pharmaceutical research:
  • Fluorescent nanocrystal taggant
  • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
  • Nanoparticle labels in bioaffinity assays
  • Fluorescent/fluorogenic biology labels that can be used in multiplexing (single excitation with multiple emission)
  • Particle tracking in a live cell
  • Tracking of cells
  • In vivo/in vitro imaging and mapping
  • Biological staining of cells and tissues
  • Proteomics
  • Drug delivery diagnostics

Typical Cadmium Quantum Dot Structure vs. PhosphorDotsTM Structure


Click here to download the PhosphorDotsTM brochure.


YVE1005 Emission Spectra




Downconverting PhosphorDotsTM shown under UV excitation


New IR Upconversion PhosphorDotsTM
NIR excitation probes such as upconversion nanocrystals are preferable for both in vitro and in vivo imaging, because NIR range excitation (750-1000nm) allows deeper light penetration with reduced light scattering, increasing image contrast.

By contrast, if UV excitation is used, biomolecules such as green-fluorescent proteins and other fluorescent organic molecules are excited by the UV radiation and light up, interfering with image creation and capture. Excitation in NIR induces only a very weak autofluorescence background and avoids photodegradation in biotagging applications, thus simplifying the detection of labeled target molecules and increasing the sensitivity of the method.

With high chemical stability, remarkable light penetration depth, and the absence of autofluorescence in biological specimens under infrared excitation, upconversion nanocrystals are ideal for use as luminescent probes in biological labeling and imaging technology, multiplexing, and bio-molecule detection.


Quantum Dot & PhosphorDotsTM Comparison Chart
  Old-Fashioned Quantum Dots Sun Innovation's Phosphor DotsTM
Toxicity Toxic without external shell protection through gradual releasing of cadmium or lead. Could be toxic for long-term applications even being insulated by a shell. Has no cadmium, lead, or mercury
Lifetime & durability Shell layer required to protect core from oxidization and emission quenching, increasing cost and manufacturing complexity No risk of oxidization since Phosphor DotsTM are an oxide, and have high emission yield without requiring complex surface treatments. Less manufacturing steps reduces number of steps in which variation, manufacturing tolerances, or defects can occur.
Solubility Solubility in water is generally bad without additional chemical modifications to render a hydrophilic surface. Most biological applications are in aqueous system. Prepared in aqueous solution, so solubility is not a problem.
Size vs. Color Emission color is size dependent. Color is not size dependent. Particle size can be tailored for different biological applications with same detection technology.
UV absorption Broad UV absorption. Tunable colors emission from 400 nm to 900 nm. Narrow UV absorption.
Excitation Simultaneous excitation due to broad UV excitation Simultaneous excitation due to same host UV absorption.
Synthesis Synthesis is complicated, such that scaling up production could be difficult. Simpler synthesis which can be easily scaled up to mass production.
Functioning More steps such as ligand exchange are required to add functional groups. No ligand exchange required; easy to add functionalization. Available either with or without COOH functionalization.

SPECIFICATIONS AND ONLINE ORDERING
DESCRIPTION EXCITE EMISS AV SIZE DISPERSION PICTURE CONCENTRATION COOH Option SPECTRA TEM STORAGE ITEM # PRICE QUANTITY
Cerium Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Colloid 465 nm 545 nm 10 nm Solvent: 1,4-butanediol 8 mg/ml Yes Excitation & Emission TEM Do not freeze YAG1001 $200/ml  
Dysprosium Doped Yttrium Vanadate Colloid 300 nm 486 & 576 nm 10 nm Aqueous Colloid with Trace of Citrate YVO4:Dy 10 mg/ml Yes Excitation & Absorption   Emission TEM Do not freeze YVD1001 $150/ml  
Dysprosium Doped Yttrium Vanadate Colloid 300 nm 486 & 576 nm 20-50 nm <0.7 mg/ml PVP YVO4:Dy 1.0 mg/ml Yes Excitation & Absorption   Emission TEM Do not freeze YVD1101 $400/ml  
Erbium Doped Yttrium Vanadate Colloid 300 nm 527 & 556 nm 20-50 nm Aqueous Colloid with Trace of Citrate YVO4:Er 10 mg/ml No Emission TEM Do not freeze YVER1004 $250/ml  
NaYF4:YbEr Colloid 980 nm 545 nm 25 nm Hexane 10 mg/ml No Emission TEM Do not freeze YF1001 $300/ml  
Europium Doped Yttrium Vanadate Colloid 300 nm 620 nm 20-50 nm <0.7 mg/ml PVP YVO4:Eu 1.0 mg/ml Yes Excitation & Absorption   Emission TEM Do not freeze YVE1101 $400/ml  
Europium Doped Yttrium Vanadate Colloid 350 nm 617 nm 10 nm Solvent: H2O YVO4:Eu 10 mg/ml Yes Excitation & Absorption
Emission
TEM Do not freeze YVE1005 $150/ml  
Samarium Doped Yttrium Vanadate Colloid 300 nm 568, 607, & 650 nm 10 nm Aqueous Colloid with Trace of Citrate YVO4:Sm 10 mg/ml Yes Excitation & Absorption   Emission TEM Do not freeze YVS1001 $150/ml  
Samarium Doped Yttrium Vanadate Colloid 300 nm 568, 607, & 650 nm 20-50 nm <0.7mg/ml PVP YVO4:Sm 1.0 mg/ml Yes Excitation & Absorption   Emission TEM Do not freeze YVS1101 $400/ml  
Thulium Doped Yttrium Vanadate Colloid 300 nm 477 nm 20-50 nm <0.7mg/ml PVP YVO4:Tm 1.0 mg/ml Yes Excitation & Absorption   Emission TEM Do not freeze YVT1101 $400/ml  
To buy less than a gram or ml, please specify volume as a decimal, for example 0.25 for a quarter gram. All prices are ex-works Fremont CA USA in US$. Please note a $10.00 packaging and handling fee applies to all orders. All orders for powders must be a minimum of $75 without the shipping fee; all orders with colloids or dispersions must be a minimum of $150 per order. All orders are our bound by our terms and conditions. All orders with a hazardous classification will incur extra freight charges if the order amount is over 28 grams, which will be added after order submission. For domestic orders, the hazmat fee is $35 and the order must ship priority, while for international the hazmat+international freight fee is $190 for amounts up to about 2 lbs., or 56 grams. Orders for delivery within California will have 9.75% sales tax added.


 

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